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LRP4-IgG service line testing in seronegative myasthenia gravis and controls

      Abstract

      Background

      LRP4 is a post-synaptic membrane protein that promotes acetylcholine (AChR) clustering on the crest of post-synaptic neuromuscular folds. Autoantibodies against LRP4 are suggested to account for myasthenia gravis (MG) patients negative for antibodies to AChR.

      Objectives

      To report a clinical experience with service-line LRP4-IgG cell-based testing in electrodiagnostically confirmed MG patients and controls.

      Methods

      We identified all Mayo patients undergoing MG evaluations with send out LRP4-IgG antibody testing by cell-based assay, having clinical-electrodiagnostic (EDX) testing. To be included, muscle acetylcholine receptor binding (AChR-Bi) and muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibodies had to be absent prior to LRP4-IgG testing. Follow-up AChR-Bi antibody testing was reviewed. Also tested for LRP4-IgGs were 119 healthy subjects.

      Results

      Identified were 25 generalized MG, 24 ocular MG, and 55 patients initially considered to have MG prior to negative EDX testing. No seronegative patients with EDX confirmed MG had LRP4-IgG positivity but five non-MG patients did: Guillain-Barre syndrome with fatigue (N = 1); multiple cranial neuropathies (N = 1); functional neurologic disorders (N = 3). Of healthy subjects, 4% (5/119) were LRP4-IgG positive (N = 5) or had a borderline result (N = 1). Of MG patients with repeat AChR-Bi testing, 40% (10/25) seroconverted (5 with ocular MG and 5 with generalized MG) (median AChR IgG value: 0.34 nmol/L, range 0.2–20.9 nmol/L, median followup 26 months, range 2–72 months).

      Conclusion

      Clinical review of LRP4-IgG commercial cell-based testing suggests lack of diagnostic utility in seronegative EDX-confirmed MG. The clinical utility of LRP4-IgG testing is not substantiated in service line testing. In contrast, repeat testing for AChR-Bi antibodies is shown clinically useful.

      Keywords

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